Machine Vision: Principles and Characteristics

Machine vision focuses mainly on the use of commercially available systems in practice in industrial production. In addition to an overview of the systems used, it will describe typical machine vision tasks and the software tools needed to solve them. In the end, taking the main principles into account in the implementation of the system. We also present the choice of optics, lighting and how to integrate the machine vision system into the control system.

What is machine vision

The history of computer image processing began to be written in the 1970s. When computer technology at the time made it possible to process such large volumes of data that carry image information, a new study came as computer vision. This name now generally refers to systems that operate automatically based on information obtained from camera image processing. The object of computer vision can be basically anything. For example, a traffic situation or a human face or human activity. And also the production process. Computer vision used in industrial production today usually chooses dates of machine vision.
Machine vision is currently considered to be the use of computer vision in industrial automation. It is characterized by a link to the production process and an orientation to typical tasks associated with the management of the production process. These tasks mainly include visual inspection of prescribed visible parameters, counting objects, finding defects, etc.

Machine vision as an industrial innovation

Computer and machine vision systems have been present since the mid-1970s. It was not until the first decade of the 21st century that there was a marked expansion of machine vision in industrial production. Like every industrial innovation, machine vision began to develop only when demand coincided with the possibilities of technical realization. The demand for machine vision triggers by a change in the marketing strategies of manufacturing companies. The turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries can characterize the transition of companies to marketing management and the maximum focus on quality and customer satisfaction. This trend developed the fastest in the automotive industry. Of the full range of competitive marketing strategies, there are basically only two applicable to subcontractors in the automotive industry today: increasing quality and reducing costs. The result is the usual system of timely deliveries in perfect quality. Suppliers therefore began to look for technical means that would allow them to perfectly control all production.
At the same time, high-quality image capture chips came to the market, which were cheaply available mainly due to their commercial use in digital cameras. At the same time, fast processors with high computing power also appeared at an affordable price. Machine vision thus received an impulse to develop and at the same time the necessary technical means. The result is the ongoing boom in this area, which has also led to the development of other specialized industries, such as the production of lighting fixtures and optical lenses.
The image created on the sensing element converts a suitable measuring quantity and evaluates. So that the required information about the monitored object can obtain from it. This transmits from the sensor to the surroundings via a suitable interface. The usual construction of such a sensor.

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