Jamun is a native crop of India. Farmers cultivate Jamun over a large area. The seeds of this fruit are used to make a variety of drugs that aid in the treatment of diabetes and the increase of blood sugar levels. Furthermore, Jamun fruits have a delectable taste and flavour. It is an evergreen tree with grey or brown bark that grows to a height of around 30 m. In addition, the leaves are smooth, 4 to 6 cm wide, and 10 to 15 cm long. The bearded flowers are yellow and have a diameter of 5 mm. And the fruits are green when young, turning crimson red when mature. The seeds in the fruits are about 1 to 1.5cm long.
Jamun can be grown in Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Philippines, Pakistan, Indonesia, and India, among other places. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Assam, and Rajasthan are the primary producers of Jamun in India.
Jamun Farming Methods and Requirements
In India, you can also engage in Jamun Farming. So, let’s begin with the necessities of Jamun farming.
Because of its hardiness, it can be grown in various soils, including sodic soil, poor soil, saline soil, calcareous soil, and marshy soils. It can also survive in poorly drained soils. The fertile, deep loamy soil with a good drainage system, on the other hand, is ideal for Jamun farming. It should not be sown in heavy or sandy soils.
Preparation of Land
You must thoroughly prepare the land for Jamun farming. To begin, use one ploughing with good tractors such as the Swaraj 735 Smart Series to bring the land to a fine tilth. Then, dig pits and fill them with Farm Yard Manure in a 3:1 ratio. In addition, seedlings should be transplanted into raised beds.
Jamun comes in varieties that can be grown. Let’s look at a few of them.
- Rie Jamun – Dark violet or black-blue fruits with sweet and juicy flesh. Ripe from June to July.
- Badama – Fruits are large and incredibly juicy.
- Kaatha – This plant contains small, acidic fruits.
- Jathi – Ripens in May and June.
- Ashada – Ripen between June and July.
- Bhado – Harvest in August
- Ra-Jamun – This fruit is large and juicy, with a purple colour and tiny seeds.
- Narendra Jamun 6 – Created by the Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology.
- CISH J-42 – Produced seedless fruits and was developed by the Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH).
- CISH J-37 – Created by the Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH).
- Rajendra Jamun 1 – Developed by Bihar Agricultural College
- Konkan Bahadoli – Developed by Regional Fruit Research Station
- Goma Priyanka – Developed by (CHES) Central Horticultural Experiment Station
It is suitable for planting during both the monsoon and spring seasons. However, the best time for the spring season is February-March, and the best time for the monsoon season is July-August. The recommended space for seedling trees in both directions is 10m. And it must be 8 m for the budded seedlings. Sow at a depth of 4 to 5 cm. Direct sowing and grafting are the two methods of sowing.
One seed must be planted in each pit. To protect the seeds from soil-borne disease and pests, apply Bavistin before sowing. Finally, dry the seeds before sowing them.
For Jamun farming, you must provide regular irrigation at regular intervals. So, immediately after manuring, provide light irrigation. In addition, young plants require 6 to 8 irrigations, while mature plants require 5 to 6 irrigations.
Management of Transplants
Plant Jamun seeds in raised beds suitable in length and depth (4-5cm). Beds are covered with a thin cloth after planting to keep moisture in. Bavistin is first applied to the seeds to protect crops from virus attacks. Germination starts within 10-15 days from sowing.
Pits are excavated prior to the monsoon or spring season. Holes are provided in convenient sizes, such as 1m x 1m x 1m. Moreover, transplanting is done on these prepared pits.
When the seedlings have 3-4 leaves, they are mostly transplanted in the following monsoon. Do water seedling beds 24 hours before transplanting to allow seedlings to be easily uprooted and swollen at the time of transplanting.
After the fruit matures, it is mostly harvested on a daily basis. Climb pickers are the primary harvesters. The fruit, which is blackish purple, is chosen for gathering. You must Harvest with caution to avoid damaging the fruit. Farmers choose the Swaraj 963 tractor model for more productive farming because it is inexpensive. Fully ripe fruits with smooth flesh are used for seed extraction and processing.
Grading is done after harvesting. Fruits are then packaged in bamboo baskets, containers, or rigid boxes. Jamun is kept at low temperatures to extend its shelf life. For less fruit spoilage, perfect filling and quick transport are used. Following the processing of fruits, various effects such as vinegar, capsules, jellies, seed powder, jams, and squashes are produced.
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